Departing from a very similar approach, Foucault builds his critique of «progress» as it is conceived in modern society, doing it from an analytical perspective, trying to rely on theoretical construction (via Benjamin, Adorno, Horckheimer, Kant, etc.) instead of artistic intuition.
And what he found? Something not very similar to the intuition of Baudelaire: progress is not what it seems. Thinking we are historically always going forward for the better is to be trapped in a new form of alienation that prevent us from realising the way we are actually victims of that notion of progress, i.e.: prevent us from criticism. Progress as it has occurred is not equal to emancipation, as it is defended in the conception made of it in Enlightenment.
An interesting thing that Baudelaire proposed, between others, the character of the flanêur as a way to escape from the cheat that progress and so society (or at least its foundations) is. The flanêur walks by with the aim to find something that stands out of the common, any hidden treasure an unnoticed detail, the extraordinary inside the mediocre.
In some way, we could describe Foucault as a flanêur of philosophy, since he go deep into the foundations of our present with the tools offered as a result of our History, to find an insight that goes beyond such tools and such present itself, at least beyond the way this present sees itself.